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Foraging in the woods, these piggies eat a diet good for them — and us

Mothers are the source of life, as Cleopatra the sow, feeding her seven March-born piglets, illustrates. Now thriving at two months old, the piglets are no longer nursing, instead eating the special recipe of local barley, sorghum, field peas and whey served by P.A. Bowen Farmstead.
    The southern Prince George’s County farm is a woods and pasture-based habitat for cows, pigs and poultry, explains Fallon Morell, who with husband Geoffrey has owned the farm since 2009. Grazing in a mixed-species perennial pasture of grasses and legumes maximizes the vitamins and minerals for cows. Living in the woods, pigs supplement their feed with roots and nuts. The animals’ healthful diet — free of antibiotics and chemicals — is passed along to humans in meat, eggs and cheese. P.A. Bowen Farmstead sells its products on the farm and at Anne Arundel Farmers Market at Riva Road.

Hoe, mulch or a touch of herbicide

The better you control weeds in the garden this year, the fewer weeds you will have next year. Weeds have the capacity of generating thousands of seeds, which means that many seeds scattered on the ground this year will be germinating next year. Not all of the seeds will germinate at once. Many hard seeds can remain in the ground for years, especially if they get buried.  
    Frequent light cultivation while the weed seedlings are small is the best method of control — providing you have the time.
    When cultivating or hoeing, disturb as little soil as possible. The more soil you disturb, the more weed seeds you are likely to stimulate into germination. Most of the weeds in hiding are summer annuals that require being exposed to sunlight to germinate. With ample moisture in the soil, many need only a second or so of light to initiate germination. Many large commercial farms now sow and cultivate their crops at night to minimize weed problems.
    I use a hand-push, single-wheel cultivator with a sharp, flat Nebraska blade that slices the weeds at the soil line. This tool causes little disturbance of the soil, and it can be used with minimum effort. The Weed Bandit is also a good tool for controlling weeds.
    Whatever your tool, it must be sharp. For good weed control when seedlings are young, all that is necessary is to cut the top from its roots.  The roots are not capable of regenerating at this stage of development. You can do all you need by simply scratching the surface of the soil. Controlling weeds that are several inches tall requires more effort and more digging.
    Mulch can also control weeds.  Unless you are using black plastic, mulch tends to make the soil cool. If you are growing tomatoes, peppers or eggplants, delay mulching until the first cluster of fruit is forming. Plastic mulches must be anchored along the edges, lest they blow away. You can mulch with newspaper, but you’ll need 10 to 12 layers to provide adequate weed control. Unless kept wet or anchored, the paper can blow away. Shredded paper or cardboard makes better mulch because both are easily spread and, once wetted down, tend to mesh together and stay put. The other nice thing about using paper is that it will rot in place and leave little residue because it is pure cellulose.
    Straw is often used in the garden, especially around tomato and pepper plants.  However, unless the straw is free of weeds, it can be a source of more and different kinds of weeds next year. Never use hay as it is generally loaded with seeds.
    The only herbicide I feel comfortable using to control weeds is Preen. A fluoride, it is effective only on germinating weed seeds. It has no effect on weeds once they have germinated. It must be applied on clean cultivated soil and watered immediately. I use it in my asparagus bed only after we have finished cutting. I use it in the onion bed two to three weeks after the transplants have been planted. I also use it with carrots, parsnips, radishes and beets after the rows have been thinned to the proper spacing. It is useful in the flower garden applied one to two weeks after transplanting.
    To avoid injury, Preen must be applied as directed. It will provide control of crabgrass, goose grass and a few other weeds for six to seven weeks. This is time enough for the crop to shade the ground and the weeds.


Ask Dr. Gouin your questions at DR.FRGouin@gmail.com. Please include your name and address.

To an osprey, I’m the paparazzi

Living on the Chesapeake Bay allows me to play in the playground of osprey. These beautiful birds, also known as sea hawks, are creative in where they make their homes.
    Many people on the Chesapeake are such lovers and advocates for osprey that they build nesting stations in hopes that a family will move in. Just down the river from my home is one such nesting station. I went to take photos, but the osprey parent was very protective of the little ones. Screaming at me in protest, she expanded her wings in hopes of intimidating me.
    I headed downriver.
    Another osprey couple nested on a channel marker enjoying the late afternoon sun. They watched my approach with keen eyes. While more accustomed to people floating by on boats because of their busy crossroads address, they still wondered just what I was up to.
    Posturing with their huge wingspan, they imagined they would get me to drift off. Little did they know that I was determined to get my gallery shot.
    After a few moments of screaming and flapping their wings, they realized that I wasn’t going to go anywhere. If they wanted privacy, then they’d have to go elsewhere. So much for their romantic evening by the water.
    Finally taking flight, they gave me my chance. It was worth the wait.

You don’t have to wait until 2061 to delight in its offspringHill in compost to enjoy potatoes early and late

There is nothing like going into the garden and digging a nice big potato with a thin skin for dinner. A freshly harvested white potato from a plant still actively growing guarantees you not only great satisfaction but also a vegetable that is filled with vitamins because you don’t have to remove the skin to eat it.
    If you plan ahead, you need not wait for the potato plant to die back to the ground before you start harvesting.
    It’s common to grow potatoes by hilling them with soil, which stimulates the plants to generate rhizomes on which the potato grows. Part of that way of planting is to wait to harvest the potatoes until after the plants have died back to the ground. Late-harvested potatoes store better. But you have to wait to eat freshly dug potatoes. That’s a delicacy I enjoy as early as possible in the summer, so I hill my potatoes using compost made from leaves raked the previous fall. The compost still contains a large percentage of partially decayed leaves, but it is rich brown, light and easy to handle. I apply six inches of the compost as soon as the plants have grown a foot tall. Lift the bottom leaves of each plant so they don’t come in contact with the ground but are supported by the compost.
    As soon as the plants have grown another 10 to 12 inches, I apply another six to eight inches of compost, again lifting the bottom leaves from the ground and firmly applying compost along the stems. Another application of compost is made after the plants have grown another foot, which generally occurs when the plants are beginning to flower. By the third application of compost, the mounds surrounding the plants are about 18 inches high. After the third round, I hoe a thin layer of soil over the hills of compost to help keep it in place. Covering the compost with soil also helps to keep it moist so that it will continue to decompose while in the garden.
    Since the compost remains loose, it is easy to sneak your hands down around the roots of the plants and harvest a potato or two without disturbing the plant. Harvest no more than two potatoes from each plant this way.
    After the tops of the plants have died back to the ground, the potatoes are easy to dig because most will have grown in the mound of compost, though some of the larger potatoes will have grown in the soil beneath the mound of compost.
    The area where the potatoes had been growing can now be raked smooth and lightly roto-tilled in preparation for planting the fall crop of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower or rutabaga.
    Over the years, I have found fewer potato beetle problems when using this method. Other compost-hill growers have reported similar results.


Ask Dr. Gouin your questions at DR.FRGouin@gmail.com. Please include your name and address.

Learn what you need to know, take what you need to have

If you don’t have some type of watercraft — be it canoe, kayak, skiff, sailboat, sailboard or motor yacht — you’ll miss out on enjoying our largest public playground: the vast, 4,500 square miles of the Chesapeake Bay.
    A boat is your magic carpet for roaming the Bay and its tributaries while fishing, sailing, crabbing, clamming, oystering, photographing or cruising and paddling about in the natural beauty of the Chesapeake.

Fish-finder

  The rockfish trophy season is following its traditional schedule. Opening week was great. But springtime weather and the stripers’ natural inclination to elude anglers have taken a toll. Larger rockfish continue to move on their own spawning-driven, immutable and impossible-to-anticipate timelines. In better weather, good trophy fish have been taken all around the Chesapeake. But no one location or pattern has emerged to help anglers concentrate efforts. The spawn is especially late this year, evidenced by the high percentage of roe-laden females boated. So the migratory giants will, in all likelihood, remain available well into May.
  The white perch run is mostly over, as is the hickory shad run. The hickories will be running back to the ocean, while the white perch will wander slowly downstream, then school up and head back to their accustomed hangouts. Some will return to reside in shallow water structures of the Bay and its tributaries, others to the medium depths of the Chesapeake where they will all feed up to regain the body mass lost during spawning. Until the weather warms up and the perch settle down, they will be difficult to locate.
  A few more sunny, 70-plus-degree days will be needed to get the bass and bluegill on their spawning beds. That is sure to happen soon. If you haven’t caught a bluegill (or a bass) on a fly rod and a popper in shallow water, you haven’t lived your angling life to its fullest. This is a good time to correct that oversight.

    But being on the water is not without risk. Every year people are injured and lives lost. Safe boating depends on proper preparation. Step one is following the rules, requirements and guidelines set out by the Department of Natural Resources for boating safety.
    Find Maryland’s recreational boating safety equipment requirements at www.dnr.state.md.us/boating/pdfs/recreationvessels.pdf. Or call DNR and request a copy of the Boat Maryland textbook.
    The most imperative requires that every watercraft of every type, size and location — Bay, pond, creek, river or lake — must have a wearable life jacket or personal floatation device (PFD) of appropriate size for each person on board. All children under the age of 13 must wear their PFD while aboard any craft less than 21 feet in length.
    Boats of 16 feet and over must likewise have, readily available, a type IV floating, throwable device (for man-overboard situations) such as a certified floating cushion or life ring.
    Finally, to operate sailing or motorized craft, all boaters born after July 1, 1972, must take an eight-hour Maryland Basic Boating Course and possess and have on their person a Maryland Boating Safety Education Certificate.
    Classes are listed in Bay weekly’s 8 Days a Week calendar of events. Natural Resources Police Safety Education also lists classes: 410-643-8502; www.dnr.state.md.us/boating/safety/basiccourse.asp.
    You can also find online courses at:
• www.boatus.org/onlinecourse/
Maryland.asp
• www.boat-ed.com/maryland/
• www.BOATERexam.com/usa/
maryland
    Find a handy checklist of all boat-safety items required under Maryland law at the DNR website or on page 21 in the Boat Maryland textbook. Failure to possess these required items while operating your boat can cost you a significant fine plus, in some cases, being ordered off of the water until the shortcomings are rectified.
    There is also a list of suggested items that make a lot of sense. These include a VHF radio, cell phone, extra fuel, a boat hook, charts and a compass, a flashlight and batteries, food and water, mooring lines, tool kit, spare anchor, binoculars, extra clothing, foul weather gear, a searchlight, sunscreen, insect repellant, hand towels, a First Aid Kit and a spare paddle.
    If you venture into distant, sparsely populated areas, consider an EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon) and a satellite phone.
    Squalls, thunderstorms and other violent weather conditions — as well as mechanical breakdowns and unavoidable accidents — are always unpleasant possibilities on the water. Keep the DNR emergency response hotline on your speed dial or, at least, in your list of phone contacts: 410-260-8888 or 877-224-7229.
    If you spend enough time on the water, eventually things will get dicey. If you’re prepared, the incident will only result in a good yarn. If you’re unprepared … well, don’t let that happen.

Otherwise, you’re planting trouble

Every year, readers complain to me that some of their plants are flowering either poorly or not at all. That junipers, Japanese hollies and other shrubs have dead branches or worse. That their plants are so leggy. That tree roots have cracked their sidewalks. Last year, a reader asked what would cause the cement block in his basement to crack and bulge.
    As plants grow, they require more room. Some plants grow more vigorously than others. Many people plant without planning or knowing anything about the plants they have purchased. All kinds of trouble results.
    Crowding is one the consequences. Few gardeners can afford to purchase mature plants when landscaping their home or planting their flowerbeds. Most of the trees and shrubs sold in garden centers are one-tenth to one-quarter their mature size. This is also true for bedding plants and vegetable transplants. Because the plants are small, there’s a tendency to plant them close together to fill the space as rapidly as possible. The problem is that plants quickly grow together and compete for light. Some of the more vigorous species, especially when planted on the south, begin to shade the slower-growing plants. The better prepared the soil, the quicker the growth.
    Crowded plants are forced to grow tall and spindly with weak stems. The thickness and strength of a plant stem is directly related to the frequency of bending and the number of branches or leaves originating from the stem. Plants that are crowded do not sway with the wind as those that are more exposed. Crowding also prevents side branches and leaves from developing on the stem. As a result, the stem does not increase in diameter and remains weak. Crowding also inhibits flowering.
    Many flowering plants such as azaleas, rhododendrons, roses, crape myrtle, lilacs and Korean dogwoods produce the maximum flowers when planted in full sun. The plants may have been planted in full sun initially, but surrounded with a more vigorous or a taller-growing species, they extend their shade over the slower-growing flowering species. As the flowering plants are exposed to more shade and less sun, their ability to produce flowers is reduced.
    Other species of ornamentals will grow only in full sun. Junipers, Japanese hollies, pine, spruce, fir, arborvitae, chamaecyparis and others deteriorate when planted in shade. As these species are exposed to more and more shade, the plant’s branches die back. Many gardeners associate the dieback with disease and do not realize that the branches are dying from insufficient direct sunlight.
    As the roots of trees grow in diameter, the force that is generated can lift concrete walkways. For planting near walkways or foundations, select trees that will produce deep roots and plant them at a sufficient distance to develop without damaging structures. Trees should never be planted closer than 20 feet from a foundation. I have seen cement block foundations crack and bulge from the pressure exerted by expanding tree roots.
    Before purchasing plants, take time to read the information about each species, select those that best meet your needs, recognize their mature size and make certain that the plants you select will receive the amount of sun they need.


Ask Dr. Gouin your questions at DR.FRGouin@gmail.com. Please include your name and address.

The big fish are here, with anglers on their tails

As our boat, Downtime, approached the Bay Bridge spans, I glanced back at the trolling setup just in time to see the portside rod slam down hard in its holder. Tim Levandoski, an eager angler visiting from upstate New York, rushed to grab the straining outfit. He could barely hold it vertical while line poured off the reel against the drag.
    Welcome to the Chesapeake, I thought, as a broad smile illuminated the face of an angler accustomed to the pull of the five- and six-pound freshwater bass of his home state. Fifteen minutes later, but only after considerable effort, he hoisted up a muscular 36-inch, 20-plus-pound rockfish for some photos.
    That handsome catch was made the last practice day before trophy rockfish season. A stellar opening day followed on April 19. The last half-dozen years, opening day has been plagued by nasty winds and wretched seas. This year’s version was sunny and calm, and the catches impressive.
    Success spread over a wide area including Love Point, the Bay Bridge, Gum Thickets, the mouth of Eastern Bay, Bloody Point, over to Hackett’s and down to Chesapeake Beach, then to Solomons. Our waters are full of migratory stripers, and they are hungry.
    Early reports included a couple of 50-plus-pound fish. A 47-incher (that took a white bucktail) was caught by Jim Aherns on the Pollyann to win the 13th Annual Boatyard Bar & Grill Opening Day Tournament.
    Nice-sized fish seem to dominate the storyline all over the Bay.
    Angler’s Sport Center has weighed in quite a few hefty stripers for citation (40 inches or over), more than I ever remember, and I’ve heard of no throwbacks.
    Trolling typically dominates the early season tactical scenario with boats working the main stem of the Chesapeake. Larger lures such as parachutes rigged with nine- and 12-inch sassy shads (white or chartreuse) are taking large fish, while big umbrella rigs in the same colors have accounted for a few giants.
    Fishing the top 20 feet of the water column is key during the early season, but dragging a few baits deep for insurance makes sense. Working across the cavernous shipping channels all the way past the shallower edges and keeping trolling speeds to under three knots are also part of the drill. Early morning hours are usually heavily weighted with success as daytime boat traffic eventually scatters the fish or drives them deeper.
    Bait fishing is taking increasingly larger numbers of trophy stripers as well this early season as the method continues to become more popular. Fishing fresh-cut bait or bloodworms on the bottom has been surprisingly effective in the same areas that have traditionally been productive only later in the year. The most productive spots are around the mouths of the major tributaries for boat anglers; Matapeake and Sandy Point state parks, or any accessible shoreline on the Bay proper, for land-based sports.
    The opening day of Maryland’s Rockfish Trophy Season is designated by state law as the third Saturday in April. The timing is planned to avoid large female fish still trying to reproduce.
    The result of our unusually long and cold winter, however, is that many of the trophy-sized females landed so far this season are still bulging with roe. Because of the unusually low water temperatures, the spawn has been delayed and extended.
    Prudent anglers will refrain from harvesting these gravid fish, releasing them and choosing to take only the males and spawned-out females. Returning big roe-bearing fish — easily carrying a half-million eggs — to the Bay to complete their spawns will benefit future rockfish populations.

Help give their migration a future

Since the last Ice Age, monarch butterflies have followed the path of the glaciers in their annual migration. The orange and black creatures are more fragile than the magnolia blossoms now in their short season. Yet in September, tens of thousands of monarchs fly from the midlands of the United States all the way to southern Mexico.
    Again this spring, they rise from the oyamel fir trees to reverse their migration. Those seasoned long-distance fliers reach the southern U.S. before their lives and wings are worn out. By then they’ve laid the eggs of the next generation. The grandchildren of those migrators will reach Canada this summer. Their great-grandchildren will be this season’s Mexican migrators.
    Ours could be the last human generation to witness this epic migration.
    Or we can enlist in the army of revival. The company is good, the purpose inspiring and the story an epic in its own right.
    Until the second half of the last century, no human knew where the monarchs went.
    To solve that mystery University of Toronto zoologist Fred Urquhart and wife Norah formed a continental army. Using a print network of newspapers and books, they recruited volunteers to capture, tag and recover the migrating monarchs.
    One of their hundreds of recruits, Elmer Dengler of Bowie, now wants to enlist you.
    Your first mission won’t be as demanding as Dengler’s. A southeastern Pennsylvania boy who saw the Urquharts’ appeal in a library book, he bred and tagged 1,000 monarchs in a single summer.
    “I got a report back from Dr. Urquhart that one of mine was captured on the Gulf of Mexico in Alabama less than 30 days after I’d released it,” Dengler told Bay Weekly.
    Retired now from a career that took him around the nation as an environmental systems manager, he returned to, he says, “the insect that sparked my career.”
    “The current migrating monarch population is as low as two percent of original levels,” he reports. “Time has almost run out.”
    Loss of habitat is the force pushing extinction. Development, illegal logging and agribusiness threaten the monarch caterpillar’s only food: milkweed.
    Reversing those trends on fronts from planting to policy is the mission of a new continental army organized under Monarch Watch.
    Michelle Obama has already signed on, planting a pollinator garden at the White House. The presidents and prime ministers of Canada, Mexico and the United States have joined forces to create monarch-saving policy.
    Dengler’s mission for you is planting one of thousands of monarch butterfly way-stations.
    “As long as you have a patio or more in terms of sunny outside area,” he says, “you can help the monarchs.”
    Working with the Bowie-Crofton Garden Club, Dengler has assembled kits of 11 monarch-friendly plants for the group’s April 26 plant sale.
    “The butterflies are first attracted to the nectar plants,” he says. “After feeding, they slow down enough to notice the food source plants for their caterpillars and begin to lay eggs.”
    At the sale, you’ll learn all about planting your way-station. But, Dengler advises, “the 50 kits will go early.”
    Learn more about protecting monarchs at www.monarchwatch.org.
    Shop the Bowie-Crofton Garden Club sale Saturday, April 26, 8:30am to noon at Bowie Library. Kits $25: www.bcgardenclub.org.

Here’s the right way to till the garden

Just because you have a rototiller or a Mantis doesn’t mean you have to till your soil until it is pulverized into dust. The more you till the soil, the more damage you do to its structure. The finer you pulverize the soil, the faster its organic matter is destroyed.
    Here’s how to do the job right.
    Pray for perfect conditions, as soil should never be tilled when too wet or too dry.
    Till the soil no more than twice before planting vegetables in the spring. One shallow tilling in the fall is all that’s needed before planting cover crops. If your soil has a cover crop of rye or wheat, mow it as close to the ground as possible to pulverize the vegetation. To till, set the tines at a depth of three inches for the first pass through the garden to kill the roots of the cover crop and expose the soil to the drying sun and wind. Allow three to five days before the second tilling, hoping it doesn’t rain during this drying-out period.
    Before tilling the garden a second time, set the tines to a depth of five inches and till the garden perpendicular to the direction of the first tilling. This pattern ensures a more uniform tilling and reduces the potential of compacting the pan layer of soil below the tilled layer.
    If your soil test recommendations call for amending with limestone, compost or fertilizers, apply them prior to the first tilling. As limestone is very slow in reacting in cold soils, the first tilling should be done as early in the spring as possible and the second tilling delayed one and a half to two weeks. This technique allows for the lime to react and begin correcting the pH.
    Care in tilling the soil reduces the loss of organic matter. Increasing the organic matter requires the addition of compost or animal manure. Many garden problems can be avoided by maintaining your soil’s organic matter concentration at five percent or above.


Ask Dr. Gouin your questions at DR.FRGouin@gmail.com. Please include your name and address.

It’s a shame to let April end with no pickerel

Long, lean and equipped with a mouthful of needle-sharp teeth and a nasty attitude, the chain pickerel, sometimes called the water wolf, is the acknowledged king fish of winter. Most other Tidewater species become sleepy and lethargic at lower temperatures. The water wolf seems energized by the chill.
    This past winter season was so frigid and foul that I never managed a single dance with these sly devils. I remedied that recently on the first decent day in months.
    With the water still cold, the fish are grouped to feed on spawning perch and herring. As the water warms, the pickerel will spawn, then spread out in singles and melt into thicker cover.
    We fished the Eastern Shore, but you can find pickerel higher up in most of the tributaries and creeks around the Chesapeake.
    These members of the pike family are ambush predators. You’ll sometimes encounter them cruising in open water, but this time of year it’s more productive to target trees fallen into the water (laydowns), submerged brush, piers, the shorelines of coves, the edges of floating debris, jetties and rocky edges.
    We were using a small gold spoon with a lip-hooked bull minnow. The flash of the spoon — plus the undulating action it gives the minnow as you slowly retrieve — draws smashing strikes. Pickerel will hit either a minnow or a spoon alone, but the two in tandem are especially deadly. As another benefit, the metal spoon generally keeps your line away from the teeth of the fish so you don’t need a leader. Anglers also employ spinner baits such as large Rooster Tails, Mepps, smaller sized Rat-L-Traps and similar crank baits. Our gear was light, six-foot spinning rods with four- and six-pound line.

Give and Take
    We had action as soon as we hit the water. My buddy Moe had the first fish, a big one, right next to us after a considerable battle. During the fight, it managed to open the small snap securing Moe’s lure. With a couple of headshakes at boatside, the fish escaped with my friend’s six dollar spoon sparkling from the edge of its smile.
    Mine was the next hookup, and it felt like a real giant. It came away from the shore pulling deep with steady pressure and passed by us, unconcerned, on the way out to open water. I wasn’t sure it knew it was hooked.
    I increased the drag tension as the fish slowly pulled out line. Only then did it shake its head for the first time. My line went slack. Retrieving my spoon and ravaged minnow, I could only surmise that my hook point had never penetrated the fish’s mouth. When the beast suspected deception, it had simply spit out the offending morsel.
    We kept at it through a subsequent slump, finally hitting pay dirt an hour later while working submerged brush. After landing three nice fish, we keyed on similar structure along the shoreline and drew regular strikes and frothy battles over the next four hours.
    The iridescent green rockets occasionally went airborne, clearing the surface and giving us a good look at their lethal profiles and fearsome dentures. Our fish that day averaged about 20 inches; we stopped counting after 15 splashing encounters.
    A 24-inch pickerel is citation-size and gives an outsized battle. A 14-incher is rather lightweight though still a legal keeper.

Your Turn
    Chain pickerel will continue to haunt submerged structure and cruise the tributaries and impoundments until the end of April, or as long as the white perch runs last, so you can still get in on the action.
    Take a net as pickerel are impossible to handle without one. They are also extremely slippery. You can control them somewhat in the boat by gripping them by the eye sockets (it doesn’t harm their eyes). It’s probably best to leave them in the net until they’re unhooked and ready for release. Never forget about their teeth, which are needle-sharp and abundant.

A Poor Meal
    The down side to the pickerel is in its table quality. It’s got lots of bones, many very fine. The fish are far more valuable swimming than in the frying pan.