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Many virtues make it my favorite sweetwater fish

This is a special time of year for me. There have been a number of 80-degree days, trees are filling out nicely and the strawberries in our garden are ripening. The day lilies are blooming, brightening the landscape, and birds are busy, singing their songs and building nests just about everywhere.
    Our freshwater ponds and lakes are also awakening. Water lilies are reaching up and extending their green pads and white blossoms above the surface. The frogs are croaking and peeping amorously, and along the shallow, tree-shrouded shorelines, saucer-sized beds are beginning to be scraped out of the bottom by a small but mighty fish.
    Each spawning site will be guarded with singular ferocity by a brightly colored male. His profile is as saucer shaped as the spawning site he has just created, and the little bull is relentlessly intent on attracting a mate. These fish are bluegills. A good-sized fish is only 10 inches long, but it is my favorite species in all of the sweetwater.

Hooked on Fishing
    Perhaps it’s because the bluegill was the first fish that ever pulled on the end of my line. I was about six years old and remember that tug as if it was yesterday because it was followed immediately by a bigger tug. Then the small, bamboo pole I held bent over in an acute arc.
    It was all I could do to hold it upright as my heart raced like never before. Somehow managing to get the brightly colored fish up onto the old wooden dock, I watched as the furious rascal beat a reckless tattoo on the weathered boards.
    My father was careful to subdue it without getting spiked by the critter’s sharp fins, and we soon had it back in the water on a stringer, which I checked every 30 seconds for the remainder of the trip. I didn’t catch anything else, but it mattered not a bit to me in my first flush of piscatorial victory.
    For the next two days, I paraded that bluegill about the neighborhood on the stringer, eventually boring all but my mother with repeated descriptions of the grandeur of the moment. The ’gill was a big one, I was told, and without anything else to compare it to I accepted that judgment unequivocally.
    By the end of the second day my parents convinced me to give the deceased a proper burial, explaining that it was gathering an odor and we had perhaps waited a little too long to serve it as supper. But I knew there were others out there, and I solemnly dedicated myself to their pursuit. I have held to that promise for over 60 years.
    These days I have exchanged the simple cane pole for a fixed line; a hook and a red worm for a light graphite fly rod adorned with a small black reel, a floating line and a little popping bug.
    In years past I have consumed at least my share of the tasty devils, but lately I have taken to releasing almost all of them. Each of my catches, I have come to realize, are either too small to eat or too large and grand to kill.
    Over the years, pursuing these bold swimmers while wet wading, from the shoreline, from canoes, kayaks, skiffs, bass boats, dingys and even inner tubes, I have found all of the experiences the same: fantastic. There is no other fish as willing to do battle, as eager to strike in hunger or defending its territory and as energetic and resolute in continuing the fight all the way to my hand.
    These fish are a model of life lived to the fullest. Each time I pursue them, I feel blessed to experience their fiery hearts and exceptional attitudes. My rod and reel are standing at the door as I wait for the wild springtime winds to die down. The ’gills are on the beds, I have an old promise to keep, and I can’t wait to fulfill it yet again.

Help stomp out Emerald Ash Borers and Hemlock Wooly Adelgids

You don’t want to know the hemlock wooly adelgid. The invader — no bigger than a period — is terrorizing towering trees, both hemlock and spruce.
    These pests threaten to wipe out eastern hemlock forests, a loss that could be as dreadful as the loss of American chestnuts. The bug is loose in half the evergreen’s geographic range, 11 eastern states from Georgia to Massachusetts.
    The fight is on, with two Maryland agencies injecting insecticide into thousands of hemlock trees and soil on public lands across the state. The wooly adelgid, which leaves telltale white, woolly wax spots on young hemlock twigs, is at its worst in our western counties.
    The pencil-tip adelgid joins the ranks of Maryland public tree enemies. The emerald ash borer, here a decade, gets special attention May 18-24, days designated by Gov. Martin O’Malley as Emerald Ash Borer Awareness Week.
    The iridescent beetle that can fit on a penny has been eating its way through Maryland’s ash trees — and ash in many states east of the Mississippi. To stop its decade-long advance, Maryland foresters have set up a movable quarantine barrier with sentry traps hung in trees throughout susceptible areas.
    The ash tree is a popular city tree as well as an important woodland tree in the Chesapeake watershed and a mainstay of the timber industry. Ash contributes wood for furniture, flooring, bowling alleys, church pews, guitars and baseball bats.
    Losses from the ash borer could exceed $227.5 million in the Baltimore metro area alone.
    What can you do to help?
    In all counties west of the Chesapeake Bay and Susquehanna River it’s against the law to transport firewood because ash borers could have infiltrated the wood. So far, the Eastern Shore is uninvaded. If you have ash trees, look alert. Ash borer infestation shows up in eaten leaves, diminished tree canopy and shoots or sprouts emerging below dead portions of trunk. Woodpeckers are drawn to the trees to feed on the borers. Beneath the bark, D-shaped exit holes tell you the borer was there.

It’s good to eat and pretty enough for the flower garden

Asparagus is a vegetable that’s good looking enough to be planted in the flower garden. The foliage makes an excellent garden backdrop or can be used in sunny beds to give light shade to flowers that prefer partial shade.  I remember a flower garden where asparagus provided shade for an under-story planting of impatients and verbena. The effect was most attractive as the asparagus foliage created the impression of looking through a light fog.
    The lacy foliage varies from light-green to purplish-green depending on variety. Several harvests of the spears can be made before you allow the stems to grow to maturity.  
    To keep volunteers from taking over your flower garden, seek to buy male plants. If that’s not doable, dig out the berry-producing female plants.
    Asparagus requires advance preparations and well-drained soil.
    Asparagus are grown from roots purchased from nurseries, garden catalogs or garden centers. The roots are generally packaged in bundles of 10 to 25. Most asparagus roots are dug up in the fall and placed in cold storage for spring planting. However, soil preparation should start in the fall with a soil test. Asparagus is a long-term crop, so the pH and nutrient concentrations should be at their optimum levels from the very beginning.
    In commercial production, roots are planted deep to facilitate harvesting and minimize irrigation. Mechanical harvesters cut spears below the surface of the soil.
    Home gardeners who plant their asparagus roots deep can cut the spears underground, harvesting white-stemmed spears. Asparagus crowns can alternately be planted just a few inches below the surface of the soil. But shallow-planted beds are likely to need irrigating.
     To prepare an asparagus bed for cutting spears below the surface of the ground, remove the top six inches of soil in a trench approximately 12 inches wide. In the bottom of the trench, add a two-inch-thick layer of compost and spade or rototill as deeply as possible. Cover the excavated soil with an inch of compost and blend it with the soil. In the spring, remove about a two-inch layer of soil from the ditch and spread the roots of each asparagus crown, spacing crowns a foot apart. Cover the crowns with two to three inches of the amended soil. Check the trench weekly and add additional soil as the stems elongate. Avoid covering the spears.
    If you are planting the crowns shallow, incorporate a one- to two-inch layer of compost as deep as possible into the soil and dig a three- to four-inch-deep trench for planting the crowns.
    Do not harvest asparagus spears until the beginning of the third growing season. The first harvest should be limited to two or three cuttings. At the end of the harvesting season, mulch the bed with a two-inch layer of compost. For additional growth, spread one-half cup of calcium nitrate per 10 square feet.
    The onion hoe is the ideal tool for weeding asparagus beds.
    I apply Preen only after the harvest is complete with a second application in September to control winter weeds. Preen, which is made from fluoride, is cleared for use on vegetables and will control grasses but only a few broadleaf weeds. It is most effective when applied on clean, cultivated soil and watered or cultivated into the soil immediately. Preen provides weed control for only six to eight weeks.


Ask Dr. Gouin your questions at DR.FRGouin@gmail.com. Please include your name and address.

Foraging in the woods, these piggies eat a diet good for them — and us

Mothers are the source of life, as Cleopatra the sow, feeding her seven March-born piglets, illustrates. Now thriving at two months old, the piglets are no longer nursing, instead eating the special recipe of local barley, sorghum, field peas and whey served by P.A. Bowen Farmstead.
    The southern Prince George’s County farm is a woods and pasture-based habitat for cows, pigs and poultry, explains Fallon Morell, who with husband Geoffrey has owned the farm since 2009. Grazing in a mixed-species perennial pasture of grasses and legumes maximizes the vitamins and minerals for cows. Living in the woods, pigs supplement their feed with roots and nuts. The animals’ healthful diet — free of antibiotics and chemicals — is passed along to humans in meat, eggs and cheese. P.A. Bowen Farmstead sells its products on the farm and at Anne Arundel Farmers Market at Riva Road.

Hoe, mulch or a touch of herbicide

The better you control weeds in the garden this year, the fewer weeds you will have next year. Weeds have the capacity of generating thousands of seeds, which means that many seeds scattered on the ground this year will be germinating next year. Not all of the seeds will germinate at once. Many hard seeds can remain in the ground for years, especially if they get buried.  
    Frequent light cultivation while the weed seedlings are small is the best method of control — providing you have the time.
    When cultivating or hoeing, disturb as little soil as possible. The more soil you disturb, the more weed seeds you are likely to stimulate into germination. Most of the weeds in hiding are summer annuals that require being exposed to sunlight to germinate. With ample moisture in the soil, many need only a second or so of light to initiate germination. Many large commercial farms now sow and cultivate their crops at night to minimize weed problems.
    I use a hand-push, single-wheel cultivator with a sharp, flat Nebraska blade that slices the weeds at the soil line. This tool causes little disturbance of the soil, and it can be used with minimum effort. The Weed Bandit is also a good tool for controlling weeds.
    Whatever your tool, it must be sharp. For good weed control when seedlings are young, all that is necessary is to cut the top from its roots.  The roots are not capable of regenerating at this stage of development. You can do all you need by simply scratching the surface of the soil. Controlling weeds that are several inches tall requires more effort and more digging.
    Mulch can also control weeds.  Unless you are using black plastic, mulch tends to make the soil cool. If you are growing tomatoes, peppers or eggplants, delay mulching until the first cluster of fruit is forming. Plastic mulches must be anchored along the edges, lest they blow away. You can mulch with newspaper, but you’ll need 10 to 12 layers to provide adequate weed control. Unless kept wet or anchored, the paper can blow away. Shredded paper or cardboard makes better mulch because both are easily spread and, once wetted down, tend to mesh together and stay put. The other nice thing about using paper is that it will rot in place and leave little residue because it is pure cellulose.
    Straw is often used in the garden, especially around tomato and pepper plants.  However, unless the straw is free of weeds, it can be a source of more and different kinds of weeds next year. Never use hay as it is generally loaded with seeds.
    The only herbicide I feel comfortable using to control weeds is Preen. A fluoride, it is effective only on germinating weed seeds. It has no effect on weeds once they have germinated. It must be applied on clean cultivated soil and watered immediately. I use it in my asparagus bed only after we have finished cutting. I use it in the onion bed two to three weeks after the transplants have been planted. I also use it with carrots, parsnips, radishes and beets after the rows have been thinned to the proper spacing. It is useful in the flower garden applied one to two weeks after transplanting.
    To avoid injury, Preen must be applied as directed. It will provide control of crabgrass, goose grass and a few other weeds for six to seven weeks. This is time enough for the crop to shade the ground and the weeds.


Ask Dr. Gouin your questions at DR.FRGouin@gmail.com. Please include your name and address.

To an osprey, I’m the paparazzi

Living on the Chesapeake Bay allows me to play in the playground of osprey. These beautiful birds, also known as sea hawks, are creative in where they make their homes.
    Many people on the Chesapeake are such lovers and advocates for osprey that they build nesting stations in hopes that a family will move in. Just down the river from my home is one such nesting station. I went to take photos, but the osprey parent was very protective of the little ones. Screaming at me in protest, she expanded her wings in hopes of intimidating me.
    I headed downriver.
    Another osprey couple nested on a channel marker enjoying the late afternoon sun. They watched my approach with keen eyes. While more accustomed to people floating by on boats because of their busy crossroads address, they still wondered just what I was up to.
    Posturing with their huge wingspan, they imagined they would get me to drift off. Little did they know that I was determined to get my gallery shot.
    After a few moments of screaming and flapping their wings, they realized that I wasn’t going to go anywhere. If they wanted privacy, then they’d have to go elsewhere. So much for their romantic evening by the water.
    Finally taking flight, they gave me my chance. It was worth the wait.

You don’t have to wait until 2061 to delight in its offspringHill in compost to enjoy potatoes early and late

There is nothing like going into the garden and digging a nice big potato with a thin skin for dinner. A freshly harvested white potato from a plant still actively growing guarantees you not only great satisfaction but also a vegetable that is filled with vitamins because you don’t have to remove the skin to eat it.
    If you plan ahead, you need not wait for the potato plant to die back to the ground before you start harvesting.
    It’s common to grow potatoes by hilling them with soil, which stimulates the plants to generate rhizomes on which the potato grows. Part of that way of planting is to wait to harvest the potatoes until after the plants have died back to the ground. Late-harvested potatoes store better. But you have to wait to eat freshly dug potatoes. That’s a delicacy I enjoy as early as possible in the summer, so I hill my potatoes using compost made from leaves raked the previous fall. The compost still contains a large percentage of partially decayed leaves, but it is rich brown, light and easy to handle. I apply six inches of the compost as soon as the plants have grown a foot tall. Lift the bottom leaves of each plant so they don’t come in contact with the ground but are supported by the compost.
    As soon as the plants have grown another 10 to 12 inches, I apply another six to eight inches of compost, again lifting the bottom leaves from the ground and firmly applying compost along the stems. Another application of compost is made after the plants have grown another foot, which generally occurs when the plants are beginning to flower. By the third application of compost, the mounds surrounding the plants are about 18 inches high. After the third round, I hoe a thin layer of soil over the hills of compost to help keep it in place. Covering the compost with soil also helps to keep it moist so that it will continue to decompose while in the garden.
    Since the compost remains loose, it is easy to sneak your hands down around the roots of the plants and harvest a potato or two without disturbing the plant. Harvest no more than two potatoes from each plant this way.
    After the tops of the plants have died back to the ground, the potatoes are easy to dig because most will have grown in the mound of compost, though some of the larger potatoes will have grown in the soil beneath the mound of compost.
    The area where the potatoes had been growing can now be raked smooth and lightly roto-tilled in preparation for planting the fall crop of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower or rutabaga.
    Over the years, I have found fewer potato beetle problems when using this method. Other compost-hill growers have reported similar results.


Ask Dr. Gouin your questions at DR.FRGouin@gmail.com. Please include your name and address.

Learn what you need to know, take what you need to have

If you don’t have some type of watercraft — be it canoe, kayak, skiff, sailboat, sailboard or motor yacht — you’ll miss out on enjoying our largest public playground: the vast, 4,500 square miles of the Chesapeake Bay.
    A boat is your magic carpet for roaming the Bay and its tributaries while fishing, sailing, crabbing, clamming, oystering, photographing or cruising and paddling about in the natural beauty of the Chesapeake.

Fish-finder

  The rockfish trophy season is following its traditional schedule. Opening week was great. But springtime weather and the stripers’ natural inclination to elude anglers have taken a toll. Larger rockfish continue to move on their own spawning-driven, immutable and impossible-to-anticipate timelines. In better weather, good trophy fish have been taken all around the Chesapeake. But no one location or pattern has emerged to help anglers concentrate efforts. The spawn is especially late this year, evidenced by the high percentage of roe-laden females boated. So the migratory giants will, in all likelihood, remain available well into May.
  The white perch run is mostly over, as is the hickory shad run. The hickories will be running back to the ocean, while the white perch will wander slowly downstream, then school up and head back to their accustomed hangouts. Some will return to reside in shallow water structures of the Bay and its tributaries, others to the medium depths of the Chesapeake where they will all feed up to regain the body mass lost during spawning. Until the weather warms up and the perch settle down, they will be difficult to locate.
  A few more sunny, 70-plus-degree days will be needed to get the bass and bluegill on their spawning beds. That is sure to happen soon. If you haven’t caught a bluegill (or a bass) on a fly rod and a popper in shallow water, you haven’t lived your angling life to its fullest. This is a good time to correct that oversight.

    But being on the water is not without risk. Every year people are injured and lives lost. Safe boating depends on proper preparation. Step one is following the rules, requirements and guidelines set out by the Department of Natural Resources for boating safety.
    Find Maryland’s recreational boating safety equipment requirements at www.dnr.state.md.us/boating/pdfs/recreationvessels.pdf. Or call DNR and request a copy of the Boat Maryland textbook.
    The most imperative requires that every watercraft of every type, size and location — Bay, pond, creek, river or lake — must have a wearable life jacket or personal floatation device (PFD) of appropriate size for each person on board. All children under the age of 13 must wear their PFD while aboard any craft less than 21 feet in length.
    Boats of 16 feet and over must likewise have, readily available, a type IV floating, throwable device (for man-overboard situations) such as a certified floating cushion or life ring.
    Finally, to operate sailing or motorized craft, all boaters born after July 1, 1972, must take an eight-hour Maryland Basic Boating Course and possess and have on their person a Maryland Boating Safety Education Certificate.
    Classes are listed in Bay weekly’s 8 Days a Week calendar of events. Natural Resources Police Safety Education also lists classes: 410-643-8502; www.dnr.state.md.us/boating/safety/basiccourse.asp.
    You can also find online courses at:
• www.boatus.org/onlinecourse/
Maryland.asp
• www.boat-ed.com/maryland/
• www.BOATERexam.com/usa/
maryland
    Find a handy checklist of all boat-safety items required under Maryland law at the DNR website or on page 21 in the Boat Maryland textbook. Failure to possess these required items while operating your boat can cost you a significant fine plus, in some cases, being ordered off of the water until the shortcomings are rectified.
    There is also a list of suggested items that make a lot of sense. These include a VHF radio, cell phone, extra fuel, a boat hook, charts and a compass, a flashlight and batteries, food and water, mooring lines, tool kit, spare anchor, binoculars, extra clothing, foul weather gear, a searchlight, sunscreen, insect repellant, hand towels, a First Aid Kit and a spare paddle.
    If you venture into distant, sparsely populated areas, consider an EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon) and a satellite phone.
    Squalls, thunderstorms and other violent weather conditions — as well as mechanical breakdowns and unavoidable accidents — are always unpleasant possibilities on the water. Keep the DNR emergency response hotline on your speed dial or, at least, in your list of phone contacts: 410-260-8888 or 877-224-7229.
    If you spend enough time on the water, eventually things will get dicey. If you’re prepared, the incident will only result in a good yarn. If you’re unprepared … well, don’t let that happen.

Otherwise, you’re planting trouble

Every year, readers complain to me that some of their plants are flowering either poorly or not at all. That junipers, Japanese hollies and other shrubs have dead branches or worse. That their plants are so leggy. That tree roots have cracked their sidewalks. Last year, a reader asked what would cause the cement block in his basement to crack and bulge.
    As plants grow, they require more room. Some plants grow more vigorously than others. Many people plant without planning or knowing anything about the plants they have purchased. All kinds of trouble results.
    Crowding is one the consequences. Few gardeners can afford to purchase mature plants when landscaping their home or planting their flowerbeds. Most of the trees and shrubs sold in garden centers are one-tenth to one-quarter their mature size. This is also true for bedding plants and vegetable transplants. Because the plants are small, there’s a tendency to plant them close together to fill the space as rapidly as possible. The problem is that plants quickly grow together and compete for light. Some of the more vigorous species, especially when planted on the south, begin to shade the slower-growing plants. The better prepared the soil, the quicker the growth.
    Crowded plants are forced to grow tall and spindly with weak stems. The thickness and strength of a plant stem is directly related to the frequency of bending and the number of branches or leaves originating from the stem. Plants that are crowded do not sway with the wind as those that are more exposed. Crowding also prevents side branches and leaves from developing on the stem. As a result, the stem does not increase in diameter and remains weak. Crowding also inhibits flowering.
    Many flowering plants such as azaleas, rhododendrons, roses, crape myrtle, lilacs and Korean dogwoods produce the maximum flowers when planted in full sun. The plants may have been planted in full sun initially, but surrounded with a more vigorous or a taller-growing species, they extend their shade over the slower-growing flowering species. As the flowering plants are exposed to more shade and less sun, their ability to produce flowers is reduced.
    Other species of ornamentals will grow only in full sun. Junipers, Japanese hollies, pine, spruce, fir, arborvitae, chamaecyparis and others deteriorate when planted in shade. As these species are exposed to more and more shade, the plant’s branches die back. Many gardeners associate the dieback with disease and do not realize that the branches are dying from insufficient direct sunlight.
    As the roots of trees grow in diameter, the force that is generated can lift concrete walkways. For planting near walkways or foundations, select trees that will produce deep roots and plant them at a sufficient distance to develop without damaging structures. Trees should never be planted closer than 20 feet from a foundation. I have seen cement block foundations crack and bulge from the pressure exerted by expanding tree roots.
    Before purchasing plants, take time to read the information about each species, select those that best meet your needs, recognize their mature size and make certain that the plants you select will receive the amount of sun they need.


Ask Dr. Gouin your questions at DR.FRGouin@gmail.com. Please include your name and address.

The big fish are here, with anglers on their tails

As our boat, Downtime, approached the Bay Bridge spans, I glanced back at the trolling setup just in time to see the portside rod slam down hard in its holder. Tim Levandoski, an eager angler visiting from upstate New York, rushed to grab the straining outfit. He could barely hold it vertical while line poured off the reel against the drag.
    Welcome to the Chesapeake, I thought, as a broad smile illuminated the face of an angler accustomed to the pull of the five- and six-pound freshwater bass of his home state. Fifteen minutes later, but only after considerable effort, he hoisted up a muscular 36-inch, 20-plus-pound rockfish for some photos.
    That handsome catch was made the last practice day before trophy rockfish season. A stellar opening day followed on April 19. The last half-dozen years, opening day has been plagued by nasty winds and wretched seas. This year’s version was sunny and calm, and the catches impressive.
    Success spread over a wide area including Love Point, the Bay Bridge, Gum Thickets, the mouth of Eastern Bay, Bloody Point, over to Hackett’s and down to Chesapeake Beach, then to Solomons. Our waters are full of migratory stripers, and they are hungry.
    Early reports included a couple of 50-plus-pound fish. A 47-incher (that took a white bucktail) was caught by Jim Aherns on the Pollyann to win the 13th Annual Boatyard Bar & Grill Opening Day Tournament.
    Nice-sized fish seem to dominate the storyline all over the Bay.
    Angler’s Sport Center has weighed in quite a few hefty stripers for citation (40 inches or over), more than I ever remember, and I’ve heard of no throwbacks.
    Trolling typically dominates the early season tactical scenario with boats working the main stem of the Chesapeake. Larger lures such as parachutes rigged with nine- and 12-inch sassy shads (white or chartreuse) are taking large fish, while big umbrella rigs in the same colors have accounted for a few giants.
    Fishing the top 20 feet of the water column is key during the early season, but dragging a few baits deep for insurance makes sense. Working across the cavernous shipping channels all the way past the shallower edges and keeping trolling speeds to under three knots are also part of the drill. Early morning hours are usually heavily weighted with success as daytime boat traffic eventually scatters the fish or drives them deeper.
    Bait fishing is taking increasingly larger numbers of trophy stripers as well this early season as the method continues to become more popular. Fishing fresh-cut bait or bloodworms on the bottom has been surprisingly effective in the same areas that have traditionally been productive only later in the year. The most productive spots are around the mouths of the major tributaries for boat anglers; Matapeake and Sandy Point state parks, or any accessible shoreline on the Bay proper, for land-based sports.
    The opening day of Maryland’s Rockfish Trophy Season is designated by state law as the third Saturday in April. The timing is planned to avoid large female fish still trying to reproduce.
    The result of our unusually long and cold winter, however, is that many of the trophy-sized females landed so far this season are still bulging with roe. Because of the unusually low water temperatures, the spawn has been delayed and extended.
    Prudent anglers will refrain from harvesting these gravid fish, releasing them and choosing to take only the males and spawned-out females. Returning big roe-bearing fish — easily carrying a half-million eggs — to the Bay to complete their spawns will benefit future rockfish populations.